Rips class¶

class Rips
__init__(distances)

Initializes Rips with the given distances whose main purpose is to return the distance of two points given their indices. See Distances below.

generate(k, max, functor[, seq])

Calls functor with every simplex in the k-skeleton of the Rips complex (max). If seq is provided, then the complex is restricted to the vertex indices in the sequence.

vertex_cofaces(v, k, max, functor[, seq])

Calls functor with every coface of the vertex v in the k-skeleton of the Rips complex (max). If seq is provided, then the complex is restricted to the vertex indices in the sequence.

edge_cofaces(u, v, k, max, functor[, seq])

Calls functor with every coface of the edge (u, v) in the k-skeleton of the Rips complex (max). If seq is provided, then the complex is restricted to the vertex indices in the sequence.

cmp(s1, s2)

Compares simplices s1 and s2 with respect to their ordering in the Rips complex. Note that like Python’s built in cmp this is a three possible outsome comparison (-1,0,1) for ( , respectively).

eval(s)

Returns the size of simplex s, i.e. the length of its longest edge.

Distances¶

An instance of distances passed to the constructor of Rips should know its length and the distances between the points. The length should be retrievable via len(distance) and it determines how many points the complex is built on. The distances between the points are inferred by the class Rips by calling distances with a pair of vertices as arguments.

For example, the following class represents 10 points on an integer lattice:

class Distances:
def __len__(self):
return 10

def __call__(self, x, y):
return math.fabs(y-x)


The bindings expose a C++ class as a Python class PairwiseDistances to deal with explicit points in a Euclidean space. In pure Python it could be defined as follows (in fact it used to be a pure Python class, and one may still find it in bindings/python/dionysus/distances.py; its performance is much slower than its pure C++ analog):

class PairwiseDistances:
def __init__(self, points, norm = l2):
self.points = points
self.norm = norm

def __len__(self):
return len(self.points)

def __call__(self, p1, p2):
return self.norm([x - y for (x,y) in zip(self.points[p1], self.points[p2])])


Another distances class is available that speeds up the computation of the Rips complex at the expense of the memory usage: ExplicitDistances. It is initialized with an instance of any class that behaves like a distances class, and it stores all of its distances explicitly to not have to recompute them in the future:

distances = PairwiseDistances(points)
distances = ExplicitDistances(distances)


With PairwiseDistances being a C++ class, and ExplicitDistances being pure Python, the speed-up seems minor.

Example¶

The following example reads in points from a file, and fills the list simplices with the simplices of the 2-skeleton of the Rips complex built on those vertices with distance cutoff parameter 50. Subsequently it computes the persistence of the resulting filtration (defined by rips.cmp):

points = [for p in points_file('...')]
distances = PairwiseDistances(points)
rips = Rips(distances)
simplices = Filtration()
rips.generate(2, 50, simplices.append)

simplices.sort(rips.cmp)
p = StaticPersistence(simplices)
p.pair_simplices()


Essentially the same example is implemented in examples/rips/rips-pairwise.py, although it reads the k and max parameters for the Rips complex on the command line, and uses a trick to speed up the computation.